UEDA GROUP
Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo
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2019年度 / Academic Year 2019

研究室メンバーによるレギュラー・セミナー、 および、他研究室・機関からのゲスト・スピーカーのセミナーを開催しています。 レギュラー・セミナーは下記要領で行います。 ご興味ある方の参加、歓迎します。事前の連絡なく参加頂けますが、 夏学期の論文紹介ゼミについては発表者に連絡頂けましたら発表資料を必要分印刷します。

Access map:理学部1号館 (Faculty of Science Bldg. 1) / 理学部4号館 (Faculty of Science Bldg. 4)

冬学期 / Winter semester (October 2019-January 2020)

木曜日13:00から理学部1号館913号室で行います(普段と場所or時間の異なる場合は赤字で示します)。
Every seminar starts from 13:00, Thursday @ #913, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 (unless otherwise indicated).

<Schedule>
Sep. 24 (Tue) Joining of new undergraduate members (no seminar)
Oct. 3 (Kyoto-Beijing-Tokyo workshop)
Oct. 10 Naoto Kura / Ryusuke Hamazaki
Oct. 11 (Fri) Dr. Hidenori Tanaka (Stanford University) 10:00-, @ #447
Oct. 15 (Tue) Prof. Yuval Gefen (The Weizmann Institute of Science) 13:00-, @ #233
Oct. 17 Zongping Gong / Masaya Nakagawa
Oct. 24 (No seminar)
Oct. 31 Norifumi Matsumoto / Emi Yukawa
Nov. 7 (No seminar - Monday lecture day)
Nov. 14 (No seminar)
Nov. 21 Takumi Yoshino / Taiki Haga
Nov. 26 (Tue) Zhikang Wang / Takashi Mori (@ #1220, Faculty of Science Bldg. 4)
Nov. 28 (領域横断研究会)
Dec. 5 (International Conference on Topological Materials Science)
Dec. 12 Kangqiao Liu / Naoto Tsuji
Dec. 19 (No seminar)
Dec. 26 (No seminar)
Jan. 9 Ziyin Liu / Kohei Kawabata @ #447
Jan. 16 Shoki Sugimoto @ #447

2019/10/10(Thu.)
speaker Naoto Kura
title Quantum Edge Detection
abstract Last year, the speaker has discussed the theoretical bounds on estimating continuous data as a function, in which both the standard quantum limit (SQL) and the Heisenberg limit (HL) have altered its scaling law according to the smoothness of the function. On the other hand, detection of rapid changes in a continuous data — edge detection — is a particularly important problem, which can be applied to the anomaly detection in a time-series signal and the feature extraction in a two-dimensional image. Noting that different edges will be marked in different lengthscales, we expect that selectively detecting edges from a signal be more efficient than estimating entire function before computing edges.
In this seminar, we present theoretical analysis of detecting edges in a quantum signal. We propose a setup in a optical system, in which we directly measure the wavelet transform of the signal by measuring the momenta of spatially spread beams. It is shown that probe beam with classical/quantum correlation will lead to the SQL/Heisenberg limit, respectively, which is consistent with the parameter estimation. Furthermore, we derive more rigorous results on multiscale edge detection by taking the smoothness of functions in consideration. In fact, the result is shown to be consistent with the speaker's previous study on function estimation, indicating the asymptotic optimality of the edge-detection protocol proposed above.

speaker Ryusuke Hamazaki
title Non-Hermitian many-body localization
abstract The reality of eigenenergies of a Hamiltonian is closely related to the dynamical stability. While Hermiticity guarantees the reality of the eigenspectrum, it is known that certain classes of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians have real eigenenergies. In particular, a real-complex transition of eigenenergies of non-Hermitian systems has recently attracted growing interest motivated by their experimental realizations [1]. In this seminar, we analyze non-Hermitian quantum many-body systems in the presence of interaction and disorder. We show that many-body localization (MBL) induced by strong disorder suppresses imaginary parts of complex eigenenergies for general non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having time-reversal symmetry [2]. We demonstrate that a novel real-complex transition occurs upon MBL and profoundly affects the dynamical stability of non-Hermitian interacting systems with asymmetric hopping that respect time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, the real-complex transition is shown to be absent in non-Hermitian many-body systems with gain and/or loss that breaks time-reversal symmetry, even though the MBL transition still occurs.
References:
[1] R. El-Ganainy et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 11 (2018).
[2] RH, K. Kawabata, and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 090603 (2019).

2019/10/11 (Fri.) 10:00-, @ #447
speaker Dr. Hidenori Tanaka (Stanford University)
title From deep learning to mechanistic understanding in neuroscience: the structure of retinal prediction
abstract Recently, deep feedforward neural networks have achieved considerable success in modeling biological sensory processing, in terms of reproducing the input-output map of sensory neurons. However, such models raise profound questions about the very nature of explanation in neuroscience. Are we simply replacing one complex system (a biological circuit) with another (a deep network), without understanding either? Moreover, beyond neural representations, are the deep network's computational mechanisms for generating neural responses the same as those in the brain? Without an algorithmic approach to extracting and understanding computational mechanisms from deep neural network models, it can be difficult both to assess the degree of utility of deep learning approaches in neuroscience, and to extract experimentally testable hypotheses from deep networks. We develop such an algorithmic approach by combining dimensionality reduction and modern attribution methods for determining the relative importance of interneurons for specific visual computations. We apply this approach to deep network models of the retina, revealing a conceptual understanding of how the retina acts as a predictive feature extractor that signals deviations from expectations for diverse spatiotemporal stimuli. For each stimulus, our extracted computational mechanisms are consistent with prior scientific literature, and in one case yields a new mechanistic hypothesis. Thus overall, this work not only yields insights into the computational mechanisms underlying the striking predictive capabilities of the retina, but also places the framework of deep networks as neuroscientific models on firmer theoretical foundations, by providing an algorithmic path to go beyond comparing neural representations to extracting and understand computational mechanisms.

2019/10/15 (Tue.) 13:00-, @ #233
speaker Prof. Yuval Gefen (The Weizmann Institute of Science)
title Multidimensional Dark Spaces in Open Driven Systems
abstract Quantum systems are always subject to effects from the environment. This interaction usually induces decoherence, destroying the quantum properties of isolated systems. Recently, it has been suggested that a controlled interaction with the environment can help to maintain quantum correlations, by creating a state immune to decoherence, characterized by a density operator. In order to encode quantum information in this state, the dimension of the steady state density operator has to be larger than one, so different orthogonal states can be accessed within the subspace to act as a computational basis. We have devised a symmetry-based conceptual framework to create qbits, and generally qdits, by encoding them in the multidimensional subspace protected from decoherence with the environment.This framework allows us to drive the system into a pure state residing completely in the protected subspace, which is stabilized due to the effect of the dissipative environment. We illustrate this construction with an example protocol inspired by the fractional quantum hall effect in the narrow-torus-limit. The long-time steady state subspace displays characteristics of a degenerate ground-state of a topological system described by a Hamiltonian. This approach offers new possibilities for storing, protecting and manipulating quantum information in open systems.

2019/10/17(Thu.)
speaker Zongping Gong
title Rigorous bounds in nonequilibrium quantum dynamics
abstract Rigorous results play a vital role in physics. In the context of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics, two well-known rigorous results are the Lieb-Robinson bound for correlation propagation in quantum many-body systems with locality [1] and the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford bound on quantum chaos characterized by the out-of-time-order correlator [2]. In this seminar, we introduce another two rigorous bounds in nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. The first bound is a Lieb-Robinson-like bound on the entanglement gap of quenched symmetry-protected topological systems in one dimension [3]. In addition to the results presented last year on interacting systems, we have also obtained the bound for free-fermion systems and a remarkable byproduct that greatly improves the conventional Lieb-Robinson bound. The second bound is a universal error bound for gap-induced constrained dynamics in quantum systems with isolated energy bands [4]. By universal, we mean that the bound only involves two parameters – the energy gap and the driving strength, and is valid even in the “worst” case. This is similar to that the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford bound only involves the temperature and is valid even for the most chaotic systems. We analyze several minimal models to corroborate the validity and tightness of our bound and discuss some applications and generalizations.
[1] E. H. Lieb and D. W. Robinson, Commun. Math. Phys. 28, 251 (1972).
[2] J. Maldacena, S. H. Shenker, and D. Stanford, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2016) 106.
[3] Z. Gong, N. Kura, M. Sato, and M. Ueda, arXiv:1904.12464.
[4] Z. Gong, R. Hamazaki, N. Shibata, and N. Yoshioka, in preparation.

speaker Masaya Nakagawa
title Non-Hermitian Hubbard physics in ultracold atoms
abstract The Hubbard model is a paradigmatic model in condensed matter physics and plays an essential role in our understanding of strongly correlated systems. Recently, controlled dissipation has been experimentally introduced in cold-atom Hubbard simulators, enabling us to study open quantum many-body dynamics in the Hubbard model [1]. In this seminar, motivated by the experimental development in ultracold atoms, we discuss how dissipation alters the basic properties of the Hubbard model by solving a non-Hermitian generalization of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. First, we show that a finite lifetime of intermediate states in spin-exchange processes qualitatively changes the magnetism of the Hubbard model from antiferromagnetism to ferromagnetism, realizing magnetic correlations characterized by a negative absolute temperature [2]. Second, we show that an interplay between kinetic energy, interaction, and dissipation yields a many-body exceptional point, which is accompanied by critical behavior in a Mott insulator.
[1] K. Sponselee et al., Quantum Sci. Technol. 4, 014002 (2018).
[2] M. Nakagawa, N. Tsuji, N. Kawakami, and M. Ueda, arXiv:1904.00154.



夏学期 / Summer semester (April-July 2019)

<Regular seminars (review of seminal papers)>
    木曜日13時から理学部1号館913号室で行います(普段と場所or時間の異なる場合は赤字で示します)。
    Each seminar starts from 13:00, Thursday @ #913, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 (unless otherwise indicated).
<Seminars by guest speakers>
    June 14 (Fri.) Prof. Tanmoy Das (the Indian Institute of Science) 13:15- @ #447
    June 20 (Thu.) Mr. Kazuki Yokomizo (Tokyo Institute of Technology) 13:00- @ #913
    July 2 (Tue.) Prof. Keiji Saito (Keio University) 13:00- @ #447

April 18 (Thu) Naoto Kura
    "Proof of a theorem of A. N. Kolmogorov on the invariance of quasi-periodic motions under small perturbations of the Hamiltonian"
    V. I. Arnol'd, Russ. Math. Surv. 18, 9 (1963)

April 25 (Thu) Zhikang Wang
    "Supersymmetry and quantum mechanics"
    F. Cooper, A. Khare and U. Sukhatme, Phys. Rept. 251, 267-385 (1995)

May 2 (Thu) (National Holiday)

May 14 (Tue.) 13:00- @ #447, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 Zongping Gong
    "Topological Gauge Theories and Group Cohomology"
    R. Dijkgraaf, and E. Witten, Commun. Math. Phys. 129, 393 (1990)
    "Symmetry protected topological orders and the group cohomology of their symmetry group"
    X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, Z.-X. Liu, and X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155114 (2013)

May 16 (Thu) Kohei Kawabata
    "Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators"
    X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008)

May 23 (Thu) Takumi Yoshino
    "Entropy, entanglement, and area: analytical results for harmonic lattice systems"
    M. B. Plenio, J. Eisert, J. Dreißig, and M. Cramer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 060503 (2005)
    "Entanglement-area law for general bosonic harmonic lattice systems"
    M. Cramer, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and J. Dreißig, Phys. Rev. A 73, 012309 (2006)

May 30 (Thu) Norifumi Matsumoto
    "Locality in Quantum and Markov Dynamics on Lattices and Networks"
    M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 140402 (2004)

June 6 (Thu) Ryusuke Hamazaki
    "Semiclassical Foundation of Universality in Quantum Chaos"
    S. Müller, S. Heusler, P. Braun, F. Haake, and A. Altland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 014103 (2004)
    "Periodic-orbit theory of universality in quantum chaos"
    S. Müller, S. Heusler, P. Braun, F. Haake, and A. Altland, Phys. Rev. E 72, 046207 (2005)

June 13 (Thu) Kangqiao Liu
    "Three faces of the second law. I. Master equation formulation"
    M. Esposito, and C. V. d. Broeck, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011143 (2010)
    "Three faces of the second law. II. Fokker-Planck formulation"
    C. V. d. Broeck, and M. Esposito, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011144 (2010)

2019/6/14 (Fri.) 13:15- @ #447, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1
speaker Prof. Tanmoy Das (the Indian Institute of Science)
title The non-Hermitian world
abstract Exploration of non-Hermitian systems dates back to the early days of quantum theory. However, the progress of this field has exploded in the recent years with the development of a parallel quantum theory, and experimental verifications. The key advantage is that the relaxation of the Hermiticity constraint opens up a huge phase space for many unique features that may or may not have any direct analog with the Hermitian counterparts. Furthermore, parity and time-reversal symmetries render a parallel quantum world with a new way of defining conservation laws and associated properties. With a short overview on these new developments, I shall focus the discussions on the new topological phases and non-Hermitian superconductors when Hermiticity constraint is removed and/or replaced with other symmetry constraints. I shall also touch upon some of the experimental demonstrations in Photonic crystals and future realization in quantum matters.
[1] A. Ghatak and T. Das, arXiv:1902.07972.
[2] A. Ghatak and T. Das, Phys. Rev. B 97, 014512 (2018).

2019/6/20 (Thu.) 13:00- @ #913, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1
speaker Mr. Kazuki Yokomizo (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
title Bloch Band Theory for Non-Hermitian Systems
abstract Non-Hermitian systems, which are described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians have been attracting much attention. In particular, the bulk-edge correspondence has been intensively studied in topological systems. In contrast to Hermitian systems, it seems to be violated in some cases. The reasons for this violation is that the Bloch wave vector is treated as real in non-Hermitian systems similarly to Hermitian ones. In this presentation, we establish a generalized band theory in a one-dimensional tight-binding model. In particular, we explain how to determine the generalized Brillouin zone C_β for the complex Bloch wave number β=e^ik, k∈C. In contrast to Hermitian cases, where C_β is always a unit circle, in non-Hermitian systems, C_β is a closed curve, not necessarily a unit circle. Furthermore, we find that C_β can have cusps, and its shape depends on system parameters. A byproduct of our theory is that one can prove the bulk-edge correspondence between the winding number defined from C_β and existence of topological edge states in the one-dimensional non-Hermitian systems.


June 25 (Tue.) 13:00- @ #447, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 Ziyin Liu
    "Brownian Motion of a Quantum Oscillator"
    J. Schwinger, J. Math. Phys. 2, 407 (1961)

June 27 (Thu) Shoki Sugimoto
    "Normal Form of Antiunitary Operators"
    E. P. Wigner, J. Math. Phys. 1, 409 (1960)

2019/7/2 (Tue.) 13:00- @ #447 , Faculty of Science Bldg. 1
speaker Prof. Keiji Saito (Keio University)
title Ensemble equivalence and eigenstate thermalization from clustering of correlation
abstract Clustering of an equilibrium bipartite correlation is widely observed in non-critical many-body quantum systems. In this talk, we consider the thermalization phenomenon in generic finite systems exhibiting clustering. We demonstrate that such classes of systems exhibit the ensemble equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles even for subexponetially small energy shell with respect to the system size. Most remarkably, in low-energy regime, the thermalization for single eigenstate is proven. In this seminar, I will provide several examples satisfying the eigenstate thermalization. I will also explain several key-ingredients in mathematical aspect also.
Ref.: T. Kuwahara and KS, arXiv:1905.01886.


July 4 (Thu) Hiroto Takahashi
    "Topological semimetal and Fermi-arc surface states in the electronic structure of pyrochlore iridates"
    X. Wan, A. M. Turner, A. Vishwanath, and S. Y. Savrasov, Phys. Rev. B 83, 205101 (2011)

July 11 (Thu) Takuya Kamijima
    "Entropy production fluctuation theorem and the nonequilibrium work relation for free energy differences"
    G. E. Crooks, Phys. Rev. E 60, 2721 (1999)